Kjellstrom T

India

Country Summary: 

The average length of the longest dry spell, about 100 days, is not indicated to change much suggesting persistence of drought spells but with large year-toyear variability. At the same time, there is an indication that the number of days with very heavy precipitation may increase by around 5 days from 1990 to 2100 on average for RCP8.5. Some of the models indicate substantially larger increases - outside the range of observed variability, which implies an increase in fluvial flood risk.        

Costa Rica

Country Summary: 

Costa Rica is a small country in Central America of about 4.5.million people. It is located in the tropical area and has a hot climate, but cooler along the coasts and in the mountains up to 2000m altitude. Or (up to 2000m high)? Climate change will bring more hot days, changing rain patterns and possibly more violent weather events. The specific projections for this country are shown here. Costa Rica is part of V20, the Climate Vulnerable Forum.

Associations between urbanisation and components of the health-risk transition in Thailand. A descriptive study of 87,000 Thai adults

Publication Date: 
2009

Background: Social and environmental changes have accompanied the ongoing rapid urbanisation in a number of countries during recent decades. Understanding of its role in the health-risk transition is important for health policy development at national and local level. Thailand is one country facing many of the health challenges of urbanisation. Objective: To identify potential associations between individual migration between rural and urban areas and exposure to specific social, economic, environmental and behavioural health determinants.

Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation

Publication Authors: 
Publication Date: 
2009

Global climate change is progressing and health impacts have been observed in a number of countries, including Australia. The main health impacts will be due to direct heat exposure, extreme weather, air pollution, reduced local food production, food- and vectorborne infectious diseases and mental stress. The issue is one of major public health importance. Adaptation to reduce the effects of climate change involves many different sectors to minimise negative health outcomes. Wide-scale mitigation is also required, in order to reduce the effects of climate change.

Global health equity and climate stabilisation: a common agenda

Publication Date: 
2008

Although health has improved for many people, the extent of health inequities between and within countries is growing. Meanwhile, humankind is disrupting the global climate and other life-supporting environmental systems, thereby creating serious risks for health and wellbeing, especially in vulnerable populations but ultimately for everybody.

Current and Future Heat Stress in Nicaraguan Work Places under a Changing Climate

Publication Date: 
2013

While climate change continues to increase ambient temperatures, the resulting heat stress exposure to workers in non-climate controlled settings is not well characterized, particularly in low and middle income countries. This preliminary report describes current heat stress in Nica-raguan work places and estimates occupational heat stress in 2050. From over 400 measurements of heat exposure using wet bulb globe temperature, more than 10% of all measurements exceeded the safety threshold for the combination of light work and rest at the ratio of 25:75.

Mapping Occupational Heat Exposure and Effects in South-East Asia: Ongoing Time Trends 1980−2011 and Future Estimates to 2050

Publication Authors: 
Publication Date: 
2013

A feature of climate impacts on occupational health and safety are physiological limits to carrying out physical work at high heat exposure. Heat stress reduces a workers work capacity, leading to lower hourly labour productivity and economic output. We used existing weather sta-tion data and climate modeling grid cell data to describe heat conditions (calculated as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, WBGT) in South-East Asia.

Calculating Workplace WBGT from Meteorological Data: A Tool for Climate Change Assessment

Publication Authors: 
Publication Date: 
2012

The WBGT heat stress index has been well tested under a variety of climatic conditions and quantitative links have been established between WBGT and the work-rest cycles needed to prevent heat stress effects at the workplace. While there are more specific methods based on indi-vidual physiological measurements to determine heat strain in an individual worker, the WBGT index is used in international and national standards to specify workplace heat stress risks.

Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last

Publication Authors: 
Publication Date: 
2013

Background: The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death), reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress.