: This report summarizes the social determinants of health in urban settings and provides guidance and examples of interventions that have been effective in achieving health equity. It is divided into 7 sections. Section 1 provides an introduction, and Section 2 discusses urbanization and the urban setting as health determinants. Section 3 describes the urban health situation, including disease burden, infectious diseases, injuries, violence, mental health, substance abuse, noncommunicable disease and nutritional disorders.
In this chapter, the principal environmental and health impacts of energy are discussed according to the scale at which they occur. About half of the world’s households use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for cooking and heating in simple devices that produce large amounts of air pollution—pollution that is probably responsible for 4–5 percent of the global burden of disease. The chief ecosystem impacts relate to charcoal production and fuelwood harvesting. At the workplace scale, solid-fuel fuel cycles create significant risks for workers and have the largest impacts on populations among
Comprehensive and updated throughout, this new edition makes it easy to detect, diagnose, and treat the full spectrum of problems caused by occupational or environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biologic agents. An international cast of experts offers in-depth, authoritative guidance on clinical problems as well as the legal and regulatory issues impacting the practice of occupational and environmental medicine today. Section 1 is on principles and practice. Section 2 on work sectors and special populations includes a chapter on mining.
Environmental pollution has many facets, and the resultant health risks include diseases in almost all organ systems. Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases (chapter 19), respiratory diseases in children and adults (chapters 25 and 35), cancers (chapter 29), neurological disorders (chapter 32), and cardiovascular disease (chapter 33), as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues.......
This chapter highlights the health risks of globalization without preventive systems and makes reference to the international efforts to ensure effective worker protection programs are in place. The improved global information and communications systems create new opportunities for occupational health advocacy that can help bring about such programs.