Climate CHIP Publications

Energy poverty and public health: assesing the impacts from solid cook-fuel.

Authors: 
Kalpana Balakrishnan Zoë Chafe Tord Kjellstrom Thomas E. McKone Kirk R. Smith. In (Eds) Antoine Halff, Benjamin K. Sovacool, and Jon Rozhon
Year: 
2014

Energy services are required for health; insufficient access to energy services constitutes a health risk. But energy supplies that are dirty, dangerous, and environmentally disruptive can lead to disease, injury, and death. About 2.8 billion people, mostly in developing countries, rely on solid fuels (wood, coal, charcoal, and dung) for household energy needs. Some 3.5 million people die prematurely each year from direct exposure to household air pollution from solid fuels.

Current and Future Heat Stress in Nicaraguan Work Places under a Changing Climate

Authors: 
Sheffield PE, Herrera JG, Lemke B, Kjellstrom T, Romero LE
Year: 
2013

While climate change continues to increase ambient temperatures, the resulting heat stress exposure to workers in non-climate controlled settings is not well characterized, particularly in low and middle income countries. This preliminary report describes current heat stress in Nica-raguan work places and estimates occupational heat stress in 2050. From over 400 measurements of heat exposure using wet bulb globe temperature, more than 10% of all measurements exceeded the safety threshold for the combination of light work and rest at the ratio of 25:75.

Current and future heat stress in Nicaraguan work places under a changing climate.

Authors: 
Sheffield PE, Herrera JGR, Lemke B, Kjellstrom T, Romero LEB
Year: 
2013

While climate change continues to increase ambient temperatures, the resulting heat stress exposure to workers in non-climate controlled settings is not well characterized, particularly in low and middle income countries. This preliminary report describes current heat stress in Nicaraguan work places and estimates occupational heat stress in 2050. From over 400 measurements of heat exposure using wet bulb globe temperature, more than 10% of all measurements exceeded the safety threshold for the combination of light work and rest at the ratio of 25:75.

Mapping occupational heat exposure and effects in South-East Asia: Ongoing time trends 1980-2009 and future estimates to 2050

Authors: 
Kjellstrom T, Lemke B, Otto M
Year: 
2013

A feature of climate impacts on occupational health and safety are physiological limits to carrying out physical work at high heat exposure. Heat stress reduces a workers work capacity, leading to lower hourly labour productivity and economic output. We used existing weather station data and climate modeling grid cell data to describe heat conditions (calculated as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, WBGT) in South-East Asia.

Heat exposure in sugar cane harvesters in Costa Rica

Authors: 
Crowe J, Wesseling C, Roman Solano B, Pinto Umana M, Robles Ramirez A, Kjellstrom T, Morales D, Nilsson M
Year: 
2013

BACKGROUND: Occupational heat stress is a major concern in sugarcane production and has been hypothesized as a causal factor of a chronic kidney disease epidemic in Central America. This study described working conditions of sugarcane harvesters in Costa Rica and quantified their exposure to heat. METHODS: Non-participatory observation and Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGT) according to Spanish NTP (Technical Prevention Notes) guidelines were utilized to quantify the risk of heat stress. OSHA recommendations were used to identify corresponding exposure limit values. RESULTS:

Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last

Authors: 
Kjellstrom T, Anthony J. McMichael
Year: 
2013

Background: The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death), reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress.

Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last

Authors: 
Kjellstrom T, McMichael AJ
Year: 
2013

The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death), reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress. Climate change will increase these direct health effects.

Working in Australia’s heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity

Authors: 
Singh S, Hanna L, Kjellstrom T
Year: 
2013

This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure.

Energy and human health

Authors: 
Kirk R. Smith, Howard Frumkin, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Colin D. Butler, Zoë A. Chafe, Ian Fairlie, Patrick Kinney, Tord Kjellstrom, Denise L. Mauzerall, Thomas E. McKone, Anthony J. McMichael, Mycle Schneider
Year: 
2013

Energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. But each source of energy entails some health risks. This article reviews the health impacts of each major source of energy, focusing on those with major implications for the burden of disease globally. The biggest health impacts accrue to the harvesting and burning of solid fuels, coal and biomass, mainly in the form of occupational health risks and household and general ambient air pollution. Lack of access to clean fuels and electricity in the world's poor households is a particularly serious risk for health.