Health Effects: Pathways and Linkages

Health Effects Pathways and Linkages

Key pathways from the driving forces of climate change, via the actual changes to the health effects have been described using the DPSEEA framework (Kjellstrom and Corvalan, 199x) (Figure 1).

The figure above shows the diagram representing the many pathways and linkages for climate and climate change impacts on human health (source: Kjellstrom & McMicheal, 2013).


A major review of the climate change impacts on health was produced in 1996, supported by WHO (McMichael et al., 1996). An updated report was produced in 2003 (McMichael et al., 2003) and the calculated “burden of disease” associated with climate change was published in 2004 (McMichael et al., 2004).

Further information on the specific health risks can be found, for instance at:

Overview article in Global Health Action: Kjellstrom and McMichael, 2013:

World Health Organization (WHO):

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/USA):


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