Energy Poverty: Global challenges and local solutions. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 133-151.
Energy services are required for health; insufficient access to energy services constitutes a health risk. But energy supplies that are dirty, dangerous, and environmentally disruptive can lead to disease, injury, and death. About 2.8 billion people, mostly in developing countries, rely on solid fuels (wood, coal, charcoal, and dung) for household energy needs. Some 3.5 million people die prematurely each year from direct exposure to household air pollution from solid fuels. This chapter describes where solid fuel use occurs; emissions and exposures resulting from household fuel use; the range of health effects and burden of disease associated with solid fuel use; and options for interventions. Three-fifths of the world (spread across every possible cuisine and culture) already cooks with gas or electricity—the two forms of energy that most households aspire to have. For these ‘advanced’ fuels to be a viable solution for current solid fuel users, accessibility and affordability must be considerably improved.